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Implementing public, private, and static data members in pre-ES5 Javascript

Implementing public, private, and static data members in pre-ES5 Javascript

Today many of you might be saying Javascript is not a very object oriented programming language and that it lacks the ability of data hiding. But for a language as evolving as Javascript, there are always new features being introduced.

The classes came to Javascript with the introduction of ESMAScript 2015. It doesn't introduce any new OOP inheritance model in Javascript but was a plain syntax sugar over already existing prototypal inheritance. Even a bunch of new features around classes are in the pipeline (as at the time of writing this post), including class field declarations and private fields, which are at stage 3 under the class-fields proposal.

Again, that will only introduce just a new syntax sugar in the language. In this post we will learn how the classes actually work under the hood and how we can implement public, private, and static properties and methods in Javascript.

ES5 Classes

Let us take a look at the ES5 classes. Nothing special but just plane class format as in most of the languages.

Let us see how we could have implemented this same class before es5 came and learn how the classes works under the hood. So in the below code you will see implementation of the same foo class from above using a function.

Try running both of these code snippets above and you'll get the same output. This is how you can achieve writing a class implementation supporting old browsers, without using es5 classes.

The functional implementation of a class in Javascript is actually more powerful than using es5 classes. ES5 classes provides nothing like private or static.

Let's see how we can implement all these class features that are necessary for an object-oriented architecture, in Javascript.


The data members or member functions of an object are all public. Any other part of the code can modify or delete them. There are two ways to add public data member and member function in an object. The first way is to create it in the constructor fucntion.

Creating a public data member is as easy as that. We use this method of creating public data members through inside the constructor functions most of the time to initialise data for the new object. The second way to create public data members is to attach it to the contructor's prototype. This is used to add member functions for inheritance while conserving memory. Any property which is not available at the object is checked in the prototype chain.


Well this is something new we have to learn. ES5 classes do not provide functionality of private data members or member functions. Data abstraction is a key phenomenon of object oriented programming. But it is not something you cannot do with Javascript. Let us learn how we can achieve data abstraction with creating private data members.

Any variable declared inside the constructor functions, also including the constructor's params are private to the scope of the constructor function. In the above code snippet, battery is the private data member of car object. drive, charge, and range are privileged member functions, they have access to the private battery property and can change it. But you cannot do that from outside of the car object.

Try tweaking the code, may be making your car more effecient, well I am happy with the 1000kms range. 😄


Now lets learn how we can implement static data members in functional classes. The static data members belong to the constructor function rather than the objects. Let us build a simple objects counter.

Though not with es5 but you can implement static data members using the class syntax in es6. In this post we learned how we can implement public, private, and static data members in Javascript using functional classes.

You can ask your questions or submit feedback in the comments. Also do not forget to try the functional inline code editor and compiler in this post.

Thank you!